Tuesday, 4 August 2015

Fungi Infiltrate Landcare – A Few Landcarers' Impressions

by Alison Pouliot

Fistulina hepatica. Image Alison Pouliot
Next year Landcare Australia celebrates its 30th birthday. Since the first Landcare group was founded by farmers near St Arnaud in Victoria in 1986, over 4000 Landcare groups have sprung up across the country. The concept has also caught on in over 20 other countries. During that time Landcarers have addressed various land degradation issues by fencing off waterways, eradicating weeds and feral animals, creating windbreaks for livestock protection, controlling erosion and planting hundreds of thousands of trees.

The Landcare website states 'Landcare is a grassroots movement that harnesses individuals and groups to protect, restore and sustainably manage Australia’s natural environment and its productivity...The keystones of Landcare are that it is community owned and driven, it is bi-partisan in nature, it encourages integrated management of environmental assets with productive farmland and a more sustainable approach to private land management'. Landcare is a great success story. However, despite the enormous efforts of Landcare to restore ecosystems, something is conspicuously missing from concepts of biodiversity. Fungi. A foray back through the history of Landcare reveals that fungi have been almost totally overlooked in efforts to understand ecosystem function and in the restoration of landscapes. That is, until now. It seems that things are gradually changing and fungi are slowly creeping into the Landcare paradigm.

This autumn, over 200 Landcarers participated in a series of fungal ecology workshops and forays across Victoria and NSW. Participants were keen to understand the role of fungi in maintaining soils and their relationships with plants. In particular, they were interested in understanding the ways in which they could actively incorporate fungi into their land restoration projects. Landcare members were especially interested in the Aboriginal use of the beefsteak fungus (see Fistulina hepatica above).

Cordyceps robertsii. Image Alison Pouliot
At a workshop held in Stanley in northern Victoria, Regional Landcare Facilitator from the North East Catchment Management Authority, Kelly Behrens explained 'We want to expand people’s knowledge of the ecological importance of fungi, so they are better equipped to manage their properties in a more sustainable way that considers the complexity of ecosystems'. Workshop participants included farmers, horticulturalists, arborists, Landcarers and others who came from far and wide to learn about the significance of fungi in forest, woodland and agricultural ecosystems. Despite the dry start to autumn, various fungi were found on the field trip through Blue Gum Gully and Stanley Recreation Reserve. The old eucalypts around the oval sported various bracket fungi including the curry punk, Piptoporus australiensis and the beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica. The vermillion coloured scarlet bracket Pycnoporus coccineus was found on fallen wood. Several large Phlebopus marginatus and Phylloporus clelandii were also found among the eucalypts. Richard Ahearn from Albury Environmental Crown Lands commented, 'The workshop provided valuable understanding of the role of fungi in the natural environment. In my role as a Natural Resource Manager responsible for both the restoration and maintenance of habitat for threatened species in the Albury area, I will now look for opportunities to enhance habitat for fungi around valuable old trees as well for new plantings of trees and shrubs. The workshop opened my mind to a whole new field in environmental management.'

Following a well-attended fungus field day at Lankey's Creek last autumn, Kylie Durant from Holbrook Landcare organised two further fungal ecology workshops this autumn at Tumbarumba and Mullengandra, NSW. Participants viewed and handled various fungus specimens and learnt the basics of identifying fungi in the field. Participants were especially interested in various Cordyceps species including Cordyceps gunni, C. robertsii and C. hawkseii.

Despite the dry conditions at Mullengandra, Landcare members
keenly spotted various wood-decay fungi. Image Kylie Durant.
At the Mullengandra workshop, Stephanie Jakovic recalled collecting fungi in her homeland of Slovenia commenting that 'Collecting fungi is one way of getting back to nature. It includes walking through the forest and being in touch with nature.' This sentiment was shared by many and despite finding only a few fungi, all enjoyed the wander through the woodland thinking about and discussing the importance of fungi to ecosystem function. Sam Niedra from the Nature Conservation Trust of NSW said 'The workshop made me better appreciate the diversity of fungi and their ecological function, and made me realise how little attention I’d been paying to them.'  Despite the dry conditions at Mullengandra, Landcare members keenly spotted various wood-decay fungi including Pycnoporus coccineus, Trametes versicolor, Piptoporus australiensis and Schizophyllum commune.

Identifying Suillus granulatus in the Wagga Wagga Botanical Gardens.
Image Kimberley Beattie
Further north, landcarers at a workshop in Crowther organised by Young district Landcare and Mid Lachlan Landcare were keen to understand fungi in the context of their squirrel glider conservation project. Penny Gibson from Young district Landcare commented, 'It was the great variety of fungi that we have seen here over the last nearly three decades that prompted me to enrol in the Fungi Workshop. What I learned both shocked and thrilled me. What I heard about the beneficial role that fungi play in the overall health and vitality of the natural world may only be a tip of the iceberg'.

Favolaschia calocera - Orange Ping-pong Bats
This exotic species was recorded for the first time
 in the Otways. Image Alison Pouliot



The dryness didn't deter forayers attending a workshop run by Murrumbidgee Landcare at Bowning, NSW. Landcarer, Kathryn McGuirk said 'I often see white fungi branches when I hand dig a hole when planting a new tree - when I see this in the future I know that I am putting my new tree in a good growing environment'. Leslie Instone commented, 'I was particularly fascinated by the way fungus makes complex relations with trees, algae as well as humans and other animals, and the many beautiful and interesting forms it takes. The emphasis on the importance of fungi for biodiversity made me think about the hidden worlds just below the surface, and the importance of small things.'

Murrumbidgee Landcarers who participated in a foray in the Wagga Wagga Botanic Gardens were excited to discover several specimens of Aseroe rubra growing among the woodchips. The Gardens presented a variety of native and exotic fungi including the introduced species Suillus granulatus and Leccinum scabrum. Sue Chittick-Dalton from the Murrumbidgee Field Naturalists said 'The workshop opened up a brand new world in my life. Being a bird watcher, my eyes have always been ‘upwards’, but the amazing new world will necessitate a change of head-axis. I had no idea of the network beneath our feet and the symbiotic nature of the plant...'.

For the seventh consecutive year Southern Otways Landcare ran a foray and survey, organised by coordinator Libby Riches. Despite having to wrangle two weddings, which descended on our field site at Paradise (but whose guests quickly got shy of the torrential rain) over 40 species were recorded including a first record for the introduced species, Favolaschia calocera. Other Fungimap target species recorded included Cortinarius persplendidus, Cortinarius austrovenetus, Ascorcoryne sarcoides, Plectania campylospora, Cordyceps gunnii, C. hawkesii, Pseudohydnum gelatinosum, Tremella mesenterica group, T. fuciformis, Macrotyphula juncea, Stereum ostrea, Mycoacia subceracea, Hericium coralloides, Podoserpula pusio, Omphalotus nidiformis, Mycena interrupta, M. nargan and Marasmius elegans.
Cortinarius austrovenetus. Image Alison Pouliot
Cortinarius persplendidus. Image Alison Pouliot

Tuesday, 2 December 2014

Bellarine Coast Fungus Workshop

by Alison Pouliot
Workshop participants observe the fungus display (Image: Maddie Glynn).

Fungi workshop report #2

Maddie Glynn works at the Barwon Coast Committee of Management and her days involve all sorts of activities from monitoring seals, untangling pelicans caught in fishing line to patiently convincing some beachgoers of the importance of retaining seaweed on beaches.

Maddie has also been actively involved in coordinating the Bellarine Peninsula Coastal Moonah Woodland project with the aim of enhancing biodiversity values. Fortunately she also recognises the role of fungi as a vital part of biodiversity and recently organised a fungal ecology workshop that attracted participants from far and wide including representatives from -  Barwon Heads Golf Club, Bellarine Catchment Network, Breamlea Coastcare, Bellarine Bayside Committee of Management, Friends of Edwards Point, Gordon TAFE and Barwon Coast Committee of Management.


Bolbitius vitellinus (Image: Alison Pouliot).
The workshop was held at the 13th Beach Surf Club and participants arrived armed with specimens for identification including Agaricus xanthodermus, Chlorophyllum brunneum and Volvariella speciosa. Following an introductory session on the role of fungi in terrestrial ecosystems we spent a hands-on session looking at the main features used to identify fungi in the field. 

After lunch, Barwon Heads Golf Course Vegetation Manager and keen fungus hunter Steve Wilkie guided us through the Moonah woodlands of the 13th Beach Golf Course, which backs onto the Barwon Heads coastal dunes. The main EVCs of the area include Coastal Alkaline Scrub with patches of Coastal Dune Grassland, Coastal Saltmarsh and Coastal Dune Scrub. Steve is one of thirteen people who manage the course. The other twelve focus on the bits the golfers are interested in – fairways and greens – and Steve does the exciting stuff, that is, the 'rough', or the part where there's biodiversity including fungi.
Specimen table (Image: Alison Pouliot).

Ducking in among the scrub we found Amanita xanthocephala, Coprinus comatus, an immature orange-yellow coloured Cortinarius sp., Agaricus austrovinaceus, Bolbitius vitellinus, Scleroderma cepa, Piptoporus australiensis, Geastrum triplex and various lichens including Lichenomphalia chromacea, Flavoparmelia and Parmelia spp. While our list is not extensive, Steve enthusiastically reported that some decent rains a few days later "set the joint off and the course exploded with fungi"! 


Lichenomphalia chromacea (Image: Alison Pouliot).
While golf courses typically don't make ideal habitat for fungi due to intense manicuring and chemical use, the course is located in the vicinity of Ramsar-listed wetlands that provide significant habitat, refuge and feeding grounds for threatened and endangered migratory bird species. Swan Bay, Lake Connewarre and Reedy Lake form part of the Port Phillip Bay (Western Shoreline) and Bellarine Peninsula Ramsar Site. The course includes the eastern extension of the Ramsar-listed Murtnaghurt Lagoon. While the section on the golf course is not Ramsar-listed, it is covered by covenants that essentially require that it be managed in the same way as the listed area. Steve has been instrumental in influencing course management and especially the limitation of chemical application in wetland areas. While something is known of the birds that visit the wetlands, the fungi of these coastal ecosystems are not well documented and we hope to develop further surveys in the future to record the fungal diversity of the region.

While reconnoitring the field site with Steve the day before the workshop, I was secretly delighted to see that the immaculately-maintained clubhouse lawn had been colonised by Marasmius oreades, which had formed three giant conspicuous fairy rings comprised of hundreds of fruitbodies, to greet the golfers as they climbed the clubhouse steps....






Thursday, 27 November 2014

Beyond the Seed project: an artists’ response to the incredible world of fungi

Fungi art #1: Beyond the Seed project: an artists’ response to the incredible world of fungi

by donna davis, Brisbane Botanic Gardens artist-in-residence 2014

I am an artist who has only recently been introduced to the incredible world of fungi; my introduction came through a project that I worked on in 2013, The Plant Room, which involved endangered plant species.  
It was through this project that my current interest in fungi evolved, I thought it might be nice to share the story of my introduction to fungi and artworks associated with my initial investigations.

Firstly, a bit about me….I am currently the artist-in-residence at the Brisbane Botanic Gardens, Mount Coot-tha, a position which I have held since 2013.  As an artist I like to explore new ways of working with scientific data in order to develop works that capture and create sites of ecological observation. (Which basically means I try to visually articulate a variety of ecological and biological concepts in the artworks I create!). I work across a range of media including assemblage, installation and digital media to explore connections and relationships with the natural world.

My practice explores the nexus between art and science, with a particular interest in ecology.  I believe that the art/science field provides a powerful catalyst to challenge our discourse, raise environmental awareness, promote conservation and empower individual stewardship of our ecology; by providing new ways of ‘seeing’ and creating new ‘connections’ in the mind of the viewer.

My 2013 project, The Plant Room investigated five (5) endangered plant species from South East Queensland.  The resulting artwork, an installation piece, explored these plants as ‘living powerhouses’, referencing some of the vital functions plants play in the biosphere.

Whilst researching these plant species it quickly became apparent that there are many negative factors that influence why particular plant species are currently listed as endangered. So I decided to reflect on some positive factors that could help save and / or conserve these species. 

Seed saving is a great example. The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership is a program that partners with 80 countries to collect and save seeds from wild plant species, with one of their partners being the Queensland Seeds for Life Partnership (Q-SFL).  Accordingly, I embarked on discussions with the Q-SFL based at the Brisbane Botanic Gardens, Mount Coot-tha, to see whether any of the species from The Plant Room project could be included onto the 2014 Q-SFL collection priority.  I was very pleased to have two (2) of the plant species from my project selected for the program and was lucky enough to be involved in both the collection and processing of the seeds.

Through this experience I began to consider what other elements would be beneficial for seed germination, ie: if we lost a species in the wild and had to access the seed from the seed bank for propagation. 

This lead me to consider soil health, so I began to do some further research and made many visits to the Queensland Herbarium.  During this phase I met Megan Prance a passionate fungi advocate, who quickly educated me on the important and fascinating world of fungi!  Aesthetically fungi are amazing, coming in a vast variety of shapes, forms and colours, some even glow in the dark!  But I soon learned this was only the beginning of their unique and fascinating realm…. I was intrigued to learn about mycelium networks and mycorrhizal associations that exist right beneath our feet, supporting soil health and providing vital networks of nutrient exchange between plants and fungi.  As an artist I began to have immediate creative and conceptual ideas to develop a new body of work based around fungi.

I decided to investigate potential mycorrhizal associations between seed, root and fungi; exploring the interconnected world of symbiotic relationships to reveal the ‘unseen’ through art.

Being a total novice I mistakenly thought that all mycorrhizal fungi was micro-fungi (with their fruiting bodies only able to be seen under a microscope).  So I was very excited to find that there are a number of macro-fungi that are also thought to be mycorrhizal – this was an exciting breakthrough for me as this meant that I could observe fungi fruiting in the wild without the need for microscopic examination.  

During my seed collection missions with the Q-SFL I began to look for fungi that was growing in the vicinity of the endangered plant species from the Plant Room project – I took images and tried to identify them, and also sent this information onto the Queensland Herbarium for their records.  From this experience I decided that I should continue these observations to document and collect data about fungi occurrences and possible mycorrhizal associations with these plant species.  I joined the Queensland Mycological Society (QMS), learnt the correct process for collecting fungi and applied for a permit to do so.  I also asked for two additional locations to be listed on the approved QMS collection site list.

Not really knowing what I was looking for, I began to research fungi families that were known to be mycorrhizal in order to learn more about shapes, forms and characteristics of these families.  Some of the families I found included: Clavariaceae, Russulaceae, Boletaceae, Inocybaceae, Sclerodermataceae, Amanitaceae, Cortinariaceae and Cantharellaceae, by no means a comphrensive list.  I then began to look at which of these families had species that occur in South East Queensland.  I narrowed the search further by only selecting species that grow in similar habitats to the five endangered plants from The Plant Room project.

I decided to focus on ten (10) fungi species, so I was not too overwhelmed.  In order to learn more about these fungi I began to do some pencil drawings to become familiar with each fungi, this also acted as a great creative outlet and as a learning tool (I am a tactile learner!).  I created mini factsheets for each species and then began to link fungi species with plant species according to habitat information.  This then formed my creative hypothesis for further research in 2015 where I hope to collect fungi data from two locations to see whether any of my thoughts can be proved or disproved….it is very exciting to see what I might find.

I recently held a ‘works in progress’ exhibition at the Brisbane Botanic Gardens where my hypothesis was displayed in a ‘crime scene’ type of visual aesthetic with different coloured ribbons connecting plants to fungi.   This attracted lots of comments and interest – with many visitors noting that they had seen similar types of fungi growing around their suburbs.  It was also great to be able to talk about how approximately 80% of the worlds plants form mycorrhizal associations with fungi and discuss the importance of these interactions for both plant and fungi.  As education plays an important part in the artworks I create, it was very interesting to talk to the general public about fungi, its importance in our ecosystems and to dispel some of the common myths about fungi.


Drawings, sculptures and digital images that have formed part of my research also formed part of this display.  This helped me to consolidate my creative investigations by allowing me to see how my research and artworks have developed over the year. It was great to fuse the new discoveries I have learned, the inspiration I have found and the new creative connections I have made together in preparation for my major exhibition in 2015. 


I am now back in the studio working on my final artworks for the project that will form the Beyond the Seed exhibition, to be displayed in March 2015 at the Richard Randall Studio, Brisbane Botanic Gardens, Mount Coot-tha.   I am very excited to see how the works evolve.  To find out more about my work and/or the progress of my exhibition preparations you can visit www.donnadavisartist.blogspot.com or www.donna-davis.org


Tuesday, 14 October 2014

Heading into the Field in Holbrook



Report on Holbrook Fungus and Grass Identification Workshop

by Alison Pouliot

An enthusiastic crowd turned up for the fungus & grass workshop.
Photo: Elise Wenden

Over thirty people recently participated in a workshop held at the Lankey's Creek Hall to learn about two lesser known areas of biodiversity - fungi and grasses. 
Organised by Elise Wenden, facilitator of the Holbrook Landcare Network and Women in Agriculture the workshop and field foray was one of several activities held throughout the year to engage locals in fieldwork, technical training and conservation activities. Participants from various local Landcare groups attended with some travelling from as far as Young, NSW.


The fungal ecology lecture and field foray were run by Alison Pouliot while Kylie Durant engaged participants in a field walk to identify grasses and gain perspectives on ecology and landscape health.

Volvariella speciosa Photo: Elise Wenden
Even within 15 or so metres of the hall, participants recorded over a dozen fungus species including Gymnopilus junonius, Piptoporus australiensis, Boletus emodensis, Phlebopus marginatus, Hypholoma fasciculare, Macrolepiota clelandii, M. dolichaula, Oudmansiella gigaspora, Amanita xanthocephala, Chlorophyllum molybdites, Lactarius eucalypti, L. wirrabara, Volvariella speciosa, Polyporus arcularius and Geastrum triplex. In the adjoining native grasslands several species of Hygrocybe were recorded along with various dung-loving Coprinus and Panaeolus species.
Holbrook and various other Landcare groups are hoping to develop fungus survey skills further next autumn.





Identifying fungi in the field. Photo: Elise Wenden
 
Here is an article published in the Southern Weekly about the workshop.